Hazardous Waste in Vietnam
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|Last Updated:||May 2, 2012|
Vietnamese industry in general, and the Vietnamese electronics industry in particular, have been developing rapidly and the increasing amounts of solid and electronic waste (e-waste) generated each year represents a serious problem.
There are no dedicated regulations targeting e-waste in Vietnam. Instead, all e-waste is managed under Vietnam's hazardous waste (HW) legislation.
In accordance with Article 3.10 of the LEP, "wastes" refer to "substances in the solid, liquid or gaseous form discharged from production, business, service, daily life or other activities" and, via Article 3.11, "hazardous wastes mean wastes containing elements that are toxic, radioactive, inflammable, explosive, abrasive, contagious, poisonous or otherwise harmful" 19.
HW classification and treatment are governed by Circular 12/2011/TT-BTNMT 20, and the National Technical Regulation QCVN 07:2009/BTNMT on hazardous waste thresholds 21.
HW classification principles include the following:
- A waste will be classified as hazardous on the basis of the HW thresholds;
- A waste mixture will be classified as HW if at least one constituent waste in the mixture is HW;
- A type of waste which is probably HW as listed in Appendix 8 of Circular 12/2011/TT-BTNMT and has not yet been classified as non-hazardous according to QCVN 07:2009/BTNMT, must be managed under the regulations applicable to hazardous wastes.
Under Appendix 8 of Circular 12/2011/TT-BTNMT, fluorescent bulbs (code 160106), batteries and accumulators (code 160112) and wastes of electronic equipment and components or electric equipment having electronic components (code 160113, except for chip boards without components that exceed specified HW limits) are specifically classified as HW in all cases and should therefore be mandated under the regulations applicable to HW in Vietnam.
19 LEP No. 52/2005/QH11 passed by the National Assembly of Vietnam on 29 November 2005 (http://moj.gov.vn/vbpq/en/Lists/Vn%20bn%20php%20lut/View_Detail.aspx?ItemID=5961).
20 Circular 12/2011/TT-BTNMT 14/04/2011 stipulating hazardous waste management (http://moj.gov.vn/vbpq/Lists/Vn%20bn%20php%20lut/View_Detail.aspx?ItemID=26600).
21 National technical regulation on hazardous wastes thresholds QCVN 07: 2009/BTNMT 16/11/2009 (http://sxsh.vn/vi-VN/Document/Download.aspx?DocumentID=25&File=1).